Move without moving

Discussion on the three big Chinese internals, Yiquan, Bajiquan, Piguazhang and other similar styles.

Move without moving

Postby Yeung on Fri Oct 30, 2020 3:56 am

From the 25th Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 30th October 2020:

Abstract-ID: 159
MOVE WITHOUT MOVING: NEURAL CORRELATES OF STRENGTH INCREASE AFTER MENTAL TRAINING
Author(s): GROSPRETRE, S.
Institution: C3S - EA4660
Country: FRANCE
Introducion:It is now admitted that training by Motor Imagery (MI), i.e. the internal simulation of movement without corresponding motor output, leads to a significant enhancement of motor performances and more particularly muscle strength. To date, this increase in performance following MI training without any specific physical activity was attributed to cerebral plasticity only. Indeed, it is well known that MI and actual movement production activate similar cortical areas mostly devoted to motor control, such as prefrontal, parietal, supplemental, premotor and primary motor cortices. However, several evidences emerged in the last decade that MI also generates a minor cortical output that cth an reach the spinal network. More specifically, it was shown that the presynaptic interneuronal network that mediates the spinal reflex pathway is particularly involved when participants mentally simulate an action. As a consequence, MI may induce several acute and chronic adaptations in a wider range of the neural pathway than expected, from the brain to the muscle. This is of particular interest since changes in spinal excitability for instance are considered as a key component of muscle strength increase after training. Based on recent findings, the aim of this talk is to summarize the neural changes from the brain to the spinal cord that allow an enhancement of strength after MI training in healthy participants, and to propose practical recommendation to maximize this neural plasticity.

Abstract-ID: 153
MOVE WITHOUT MOVING: ENHANCED FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AFTER BOUTS OF COGNITIVE TRAINING
Author(s): MARUSIC, U.
Institution: SCIENCE AND RESEARCH CENTRE KOPER
Country: SLOVENIA
In addition to physical training, different forms of non-physical training have been shown to positively influence motor performance and motor learning also in the older age. A recent sports medicine review recognizes non-physical exercises in the early phases of rehabilitation and highlights injury-related reorganization of the central nervous system that might cause alternations in neural networks, somatosensory dysfunction and motor system excitability (Needle et al., 2017). New approaches developed from an underlying brain-based model therefore seek to find better ways to effectively train and (re-)learn motor programs when physical exercise is limited or even not possible. This talk will introduce different forms of mental training such as (computerized) cognitive training, motor imagery, and movement observation during periods of prolonged physical inactivity. Recent studies have demonstrated that cognitive training alone can lead to improved mobility performance in different populations (e.g. healthy elderly or patients with Parkinson’s disease) due to a close link between enhanced cognition and motor control. To illustrate this close link, the talk will present the current behavioral adaptations in gait control, neural adaptations of the brain assessed by existing neuroimaging technology, and biomarkers assessed through blood samples.

Abstract-ID: 200
MOVE WITHOUT MOVING: THE USE OF NON-INVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION AS A TRAINING TOOL
Author(s): PERREY, S.
Institution: UNIV. MONTPELLIER
Country: FRANCE
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation technique that has received increasing attention due to its potential impact on brain activity in healthy subjects as well as patient populations. TDCS is a non-invasive, portable, easy to use, safe, well-tolerated, in which a weak electric direct current is applied to the scalp with the intention to modulate cortical excitability and plasticity as well as influence behavior. Modulation can be explained mainly by synaptic reinforcement (long term potentiation) or by changes at neuronal excitatory thresholds. Over the past decades numerous studies showed the positive effects of tDCS on cognitive function and motor performances in patients with various kinds of diseases. The amount of studies on the effects of tDCS on motor performances of healthy or active participants is still low and most of them focused on the acute effects of one single session with some discrepancies among the current findings from the literature. Rather, this talk will focus on some recent evidences dealing with the use of various promising tDCS protocols during multiple sessions on motor and cognitive performances.
Yeung
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